Tehran Bast Daily Business Dic

 


Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 74

leverage

The ability to influence a system, or an environment, in a way that multiplies the outcome of one’s efforts without a corresponding increase in the consumption of resources. In other words, leverage is the advantageous condition of having a relatively small amount of cost yield a relatively high level of returns.

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تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 73

Consumer Price Index (CPI)

A measure of changes in the purchasing-power of a currency and the rate of inflation. The consumer price index expresses the current prices of a basket of goods and services in terms of the prices during the same period in a previous year, to show effect of inflation on purchasing power. It is one of the best known lagging indicators.

Tehran Bast – Iran Scaffolding – Iran Double Coupler

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 72

Checks and Balances

1. Corporate: Internal control mechanism that guards against fraud and errors due to omission. In a system with checks and balances, the authority to make a decision, and the associated responsibility to verify its proper execution, is distributed among different departments. These department are kept logically and physically apart, and no one department can complete a transaction all on its own. For example, the purchasing department orders goods, the stores-department receives and compares them with the respective purchase orders, the quality assurance department inspects and verifies their quality, the accounts department verifies the invoice amount, and only then the comptroller authorizes the payment for the purchase. This process …
2. Governmental

 

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Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

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تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 71

Nepotism

Practice of appointing relatives and friends in one’s organization to positions for which outsiders might be better qualified. Despite its negative connotations, nepotism (if applied sensibly) is an important and positive practice in the startup and formative years of a firm where complete trust and willingness to work hard (for little or no immediate reward) are critical for its survival.

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Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

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تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 70

Amortization

1. Preferred term for the apportionment (charging or writing off) of the cost of an intangible asset as an operational cost over the asset’s estimated useful life. It is identical to depreciation, the preferred term for tangible assets. The purpose of both terms is to (1) reflect reduction in the book value of the asset due to usage and/or obsolescence, (2) spread a large expenditure proportionately over a fixed period, and thereby (3) reduce the taxable income (not the actual or cash income) of a firm. In effect, it is a process by which invested capital of a firm is recovered by gradual sale of the firm’s asset(s) to its customers over the years.
2. Gradual repayment of a loan in equal (or nearly equal)

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Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

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تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 69

Recession

Period of general economic decline, defined usually as a contraction in the GDP for six months (two consecutive quarters) or longer. Marked by high unemployment, stagnant wages, and fall in retail sales, a recession generally does not last longer than one year and is much milder than a depression. Although recessions are considered a normal part of a capitalist economy, there is no unanimity of economists on its causes.

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Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 68

Abstract


Statement of what a scholarly or complex written work contains, presented as a summary usually by someone other than the author of the work. An abstract aims to present only the gist of the subject matter, stresses brevity, and makes no attempt to preserve the flavor or style of the original. See also abridgment, digest, outline, precis, summary, and synopsis.


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Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

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تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 67

Initiative

An individual’s action that begins a process, often done without direct managerial influence. For example, an employee might take the initiative to come up with a new product or service that the company could offer.

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Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

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تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 66

Barter

Trading in which goods or services are exchanged without the use of cash. Resorted-to usually in times of high inflation or tight money, barter is now a common form of trading in deals such as offers to buy surplus goods in exchange for advertising space or time. Advent of internet has transformed bartering from largely person-to-person to mainly business-to-business exchange where items ranging from manufacturing capacity to steel and paper are bartered across international borders on a daily basis.

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Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

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تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 65

Baby Boomers


People born between the end of World War 2 (1945) and the late 1960s, period during which the populations and economies of certain nations (particularly the US) boomed. This term was coined in 1974 when the advertisers recognized the spending power and very different demands of these (then) youngsters.

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Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

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تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 

 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 64

Leadership

1. The individuals who are the leaders in an organization, regarded collectively.
2. The activity of leading a group of people or an organization or the ability to do this. Leadership involves:
establishing a clear vision,
sharing that vision with others so that they will follow willingly,
providing the information, knowledge and methods to realize that vision, and
coordinating and balancing the conflicting interests of all members and stakeholders.
A leader steps up in times of crisis, and is able to think and act creatively in difficult situations. Unlike management, leadership cannot be taught, although it may be learned and enhanced through coaching or mentoring

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Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

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تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 63

Control Group


1. A group of subjects or conditions that is matched as closely as possible with an experimental group, but is not exposed to any experimental treatment. The results are then compared to determine the changes that may occur due to the experimental treatment.
2. The people in an organization who have the power to make and implement decisions.

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Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

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تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 62

Foreign Policy

Plan of action adopted by one nation in regards to its diplomatic dealings with other countries. Foreign policies are established as a systematic way to deal with issues that may arise with other countries.

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Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

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تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 61

Jurisdiction

Power or right of a legal or political agency to exercise its authority over a person, subject matter, or territory. Jurisdiction over a person relates to the authority to try him or her as a defendant. Jurisdiction over a subject matter relates to authority derived from the country’s constitution or laws to consider a particular case. Jurisdiction over a territory relates to the geographic area over which a court has the authority to decide cases. Concurrent jurisdiction exists where two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case.

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Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

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تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 60

Collateral

1. Secondary, subordinate, or supplementary item accompanying a primary item.
2. Specific asset (such as land or building) pledged as a secondary (and subordinate) security by a borrower or guarantor. The principal security is usually the borrower’s personal guaranty, or the cash flow of a business. Except for highly creditworthy customers (who can get loans against only their signatures) lenders always demand a collateral if the primary security is not considered to be reliable or sufficient enough to recover the loan in case of a default. A lien is created when the collateral is registered in the public records office, giving the registered lender priority over other lenders on the same asset or property.

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Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 59

Discrimination

1. Bias or prejudice resulting in denial of opportunity, or unfair treatment regarding selection, promotion, or transfer. Discrimination is practiced commonly on the grounds of age, disability, ethnicity, origin, political belief, race, religion, sex, etc. factors which are irrelevant to a person’s competence or suitability.
2. Unequal treatment provided to one or more parties on the basis of a mutual accord or some other logical or illogical reason.
3. Differences in two rates not explainable or justifiable by economic considerations such as costs.

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Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

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تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 58

Sole Proprietorship

Simplest, oldest, and most common form of business ownership in which only one individual acquires all the benefits and risks of running an enterprise. In a sole-proprietorship there is no legal distinction between the assets and liabilities of a business and those of its owner. It is by far the most popular business structure for startups because of its ease of formation, least record keeping, minimal regulatory controls, and avoidance of double taxation.

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Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 57

Asset

1. Something valuable that an entity owns, benefits from, or has use of, in generating income.
2. Accounting: Something that an entity has acquired or purchased, and that has money value (its cost, book value, market value, or residual value). An asset can be (1) something physical, such as cash, machinery, inventory, land and building, (2) an enforceable claim against others, such as accounts receivable, (3) right, such as copyright, patent, trademark, or (4) an assumption, such as goodwill. Assets shown on their owner’s balance sheet are usually classified according to the ease with which they can be converted into cash. See also intangible assets and tangible assets.

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Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 56

Value

1. Accounting: The monetary worth of an asset, business entity, good sold, service rendered, or liability or obligation acquired.
2. Economics: The worth of all the benefits and rights arising from ownership. Two types of economic value are (1) the utility of a good or service, and (2) power of a good or service to command other goods, services, or money, in voluntary exchange.
3. Marketing: The extent to which a good or service is perceived by its customer to meet his or her needs or wants, measured by customer’s willingness to pay for it. It commonly depends more on the customer’s perception of the worth of the product than on its intrinsic value.
4. Mathematics: A magnitude or quantity represented by numbers.

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Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

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تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 55

Government

A group of people that governs a community or unit. It sets and administers public policy and exercises executive, political and sovereign power through customs, institutions, and laws within a state. A government can be classified into many types–democracy, republic, monarchy, aristocracy, and dictatorship are just a few.

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Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 54

 

Aggregate

1. General: Collective amount, sum, or mass arrived-at by adding or putting together all components, elements, or parts of an assemblage or group, without implying that the resulting total is whole (contains everything that should be in it).
2. Construction: Granular mineral material (such as sand, gravel, crushed stone) used with a bonding medium (such as cement or clay) to make concrete, plaster, or terrazzo mixture.

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Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

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تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 53

 

Opportunity Cost

A benefit, profit, or value of something that must be given up to acquire or achieve something else. Since every resource (land, money, time, etc.) can be put to alternative uses, every action, choice, or decision has an associated opportunity cost. Opportunity costs are fundamental costs in economics, and are used in computing cost benefit analysis of a project. Such costs, however, are not recorded in the account books but are recognized in decision making by computing the cash outlays and their resulting profit or loss.

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Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 52

 

Democracy

Political system that is run and controlled by citizens of the country. Democracies are made up of elected representatives and require that governmental measures be voted on by these elected representatives or the people. Democracies are not universal and are implemented and enforced in different manners. The first democracy traces its roots back to Ancient Greece and since that time democracies have continued to be created across the world.

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Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 51

 

Tax Inversion

The relocation of a company’s corporate headquarters to a different country with lower taxes. While the headquarters is relocated, the majority of the company’s operations typically remain in the higher-tax country of origin. U.S. corporations are more likely to relocate due to high U.S. income taxes. This relocation can also been seen as an act of tax avoidance.

 

 

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Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 50

 

Six Sigma

Originally developed in 1986 by Motorola, the business management strategy is now used in many different industries in an effort to improve the quality of products or services produced by the business through the removal of defects and errors. The strategy involves creating groups of people within the business or organization who have expert status in various methods, and then each project is carried out according to a set of steps in an effort to reach specific financial milestones. A six sigma process is defined as one in which 99.99966% of products created are expected to be statistically free from defects.

Tehran Bast – Iran Scaffolding – Iran Double Coupler

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 49

 

Variable

A characteristic, number, or quantity that increases or decreases over time, or takes different values in different situations. Two basic types are (1) Independent variable: that can take different values and can cause corresponding changes in other variables, and (2) Dependent variable: that can take different values only in response to an independent variable.

 

Tehran Bast – Iran Scaffolding – Iran Double Coupler

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 

 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 48

 

Derivative

1. Financial markets: Contract to buy or sell an asset or exchange cash, based on a specified condition, event, occurrence, or another contract.
2. Mathematics: Measure of the rate of change of a dependent variable with respect to an independent (explanatory) variable.

 

 

 

Tehran Bast – Iran Scaffolding – Iran Double Coupler

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 

 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 47

 

Marketing

The management process through which goods and services move from concept to the customer. It includes the coordination of four elements called the 4 P’s of marketing: (1) identification, selection and development of a product, (2) determination of its price, (3) selection of a distribution channel to reach the customer’s place, and (4) development and implementation of a promotional strategy.

 

 

 

Tehran Bast – Iran Scaffolding – Iran Double Coupler

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 

 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 46

 

Net Income

The total revenue in an accounting period minus all expenses during the same period. If income taxes and interest are not deducted, it is called operating profit (or Loss, as the case may be). Also called earnings, net earnings, or net profit.

 

Tehran Bast – Iran Scaffolding – Iran Double Coupler

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 

 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 45

 

Infrastructure

1. Basic and usually permanent framework which supports a superstructure and is supported by a substructure.
2. Relatively permanent and foundational capital investment of a country, firm, or project that underlies and makes possible all its economic activity. It includes administrative, telecommunications, transportation, utilities, and waste removal and processing facilities. Some definitions also include education, health care, research and development, and training facilities.

 

Tehran Bast – Iran Scaffolding – Iran Double Coupler

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 

 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 44

 

Urbanization

An increase in a population in cities and towns versus rural areas. Urbanization began during the industrial revolution, when workers moved towards manufacturing hubs in cities to obtain jobs in factories as agricultural jobs became less common.

 

Tehran Bast – Iran Scaffolding – Iran Double Coupler

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 

 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 43

 

Commodity


A reasonably homogeneous good or material, bought and sold freely as an article of commerce. Commodities include agricultural products, fuels, and metals and are traded in bulk on a commodity exchange or spot market.

Tehran Bast – Iran Scaffolding – Iran Double Coupler

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 

 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 42

 

Principle

Elementary assumption, concept, doctrine, maxim, or proposition generally held to be fundamental or true for a body of knowledge, conduct, procedure, or system of reasoning, and used as a basis for prediction and action.

 

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Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

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تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 41

 

Paradigm

Intellectual perception or view, accepted by an individual or a society as a clear example, model, or pattern of how things work in the world. This term was used first by the US science fiction historian Thomas Kuhn (1922-96) in his 1962 book ‘The Structure Of Scientific Revolution’ to refer to theoretical frameworks within which all scientific thinking and practices operate.

 

Tehran Bast – Iran Scaffolding – Iran Double Coupler

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 

 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 40

 

Corporation

Firm that meets certain legal requirements to be recognized as having a legal existence, as an entity separate and distinct from its owners. Corporations are owned by their stockholders (shareholders) who share in profits and losses generated through the firm’s operations, and have three distinct characteristics (1) Legal existence: a firm can (like a person) buy, sell, own, enter into a contract, and sue other persons and firms, and be sued by them. It can do good and be rewarded, and can commit offence and be punished. (2) Limited liability: a firm and its owners are limited in their liability to the creditors and other obligors only up to the resources of the firm, unless the owners give personal-guaranties. (3) Continuity of existence

 

Tehran Bast – Iran Scaffolding – Iran Double Coupler

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 

 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 39

 

Dependent Variable

A factor or phenomenon that is changed by the effect of an associated factor or phenomenon called the independent variable. For example, consumption is a dependent variable because it is caused and influenced by another variable: income. In a mathematical equation or model, the dependent variable is the variable whose value is to be determined by that equation or model. In an experiment, it is the variable whose behavior under controlled conditions (that are allowed to change in an organized manner) is studied.

Tehran Bast – Iran Scaffolding – Iran Double Coupler

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 

 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 38

 

Trust

1. Legal entity created by a party (the trustor) through which a second party (the trustee) holds the right to manage the trustor’s assets or property for the benefit of a third party (the beneficiary). The four main types of trusts are: (1) Living: trust created by the trustor while he or she is alive. (2) Testamentary: trust established through a will and which comes into effect (is created) when the trustor dies. (3) Revocable: trust that can be modified or terminated by the trustor after its creation. (4) Irrevocable: trust that cannot be modified or terminated by the trustor after its creation.
2. Property interest held by a party (the trustee) for the benefit of another (the beneficiary).

 

 

 

Tehran Bast – Iran Scaffolding – Iran Double Coupler

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 

 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 37

 

Theory

A set of assumptions, propositions, or accepted facts that attempts to provide a plausible or rational explanation of cause-and-effect (causal) relationships among a group of observed phenomenon. The word’s origin (from the Greek thoros, a spectator), stresses the fact that all theories are mental models of the perceived reality.

 

Tehran Bast – Iran Scaffolding – Iran Double Coupler

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 

 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 36

 

 

Culture

Broadly, social heritage of a group (organized community or society). It is a pattern of responses discovered, developed, or invented during the group’s history of handling problems which arise from interactions among its members, and between them and their environment. These responses are considered the correct way to perceive, feel, think, and act, and are passed on to the new members through immersion and teaching. Culture determines what is acceptable or unacceptable, important or unimportant, right or wrong, workable or unworkable. It encompasses all learned and shared, explicit or tacit, assumptions, beliefs, knowledge, norms, and values, as well as attitudes, behavior, dress, and language. See also organizational culture.

 

Tehran Bast – Iran Scaffolding – Iran Double Coupler

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 

 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 35

 

Constitution

Fundamental and entrenched rules governing the conduct of an organization or nation state, and establishing its concept, character, and structure. It is usually a short document, general in nature and embodying the aspirations and values of its writers and subjects.

Tehran Bast – Iran Scaffolding – Iran Double Coupler

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 

 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 34

 

Propaganda

In general, a message designed to persuade its intended audience to think and behave in a certain manner. Thus advertising is commercial propaganda. In specific, institutionalized and systematic spreading of information and/or disinformation, usually to promote a narrow political or religious viewpoint. Originally, propaganda meant an arm of the Roman Catholic church responsible for ‘de propaganda fidei,’ propagation of the faith. It acquired negative connotations in the 20th century when totalitarian regimes (principally the Nazi Germany) used every means to distort facts and spread total falsehoods.

 

Tehran Bast – Iran Scaffolding – Iran Double Coupler

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 

 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 33

 

Inflation

A sustained, rapid increase in prices, as measured by some broad index (such as Consumer Price Index) over months or years, and mirrored in the correspondingly decreasing purchasing power of the currency. It has its worst effect on the fixed-wage earners, and is a disincentive to save. There is no one single, universally accepted cause of inflation, and the modern economic theory describes three types of inflation: (1) Cost-push inflation (2) Demand-pull inflation (3) Monetary inflation.

 

Tehran Bast – Iran Scaffolding – Iran Double Coupler

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 32

 

Autonomy

Human resource management: A degree or level of freedom and discretion allowed to an employee over his or her job. As a general rule, jobs with high degree of autonomy engender a sense of responsibility and greater job satisfaction in the employee(s). Not every employee, however, prefers a job with high degree of responsibility.

Tehran Bast – Iran Scaffolding – Iran Double Coupler

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 

 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 31

 

Independent variable

A factor or phenomenon that causes or influences another associated factor or phenomenon called a dependent variable. For example, income is an independent variable because it causes and influences another variable consumption. In a mathematical equation or model, the independent variable is the variable whose value is given. In an experiment, it is the controlled condition (that is allowed to change in a systematic manner) whose effect on the behavior of a dependent variable is studied. Also called controlled variable, explanatory variable, or predictor variable.

 

Tehran Bast – Iran Scaffolding – Iran Double Coupler

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 

 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 30

 

Market

An actual or nominal place where forces of demand and supply operate, and where buyers and sellers interact (directly or through intermediaries) to trade goods, services, or contracts or instruments, for money or barter. Markets include mechanisms or means for (1) determining price of the traded item, (2) communicating the price information, (3) facilitating deals and transactions, and (4) effecting distribution. The market for a particular item is made up of existing and potential customers who need it and have the ability and willingness to pay for it.

Tehran Bast – Iran Scaffolding – Iran Double Coupler

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 29

Stockbroker

Licensed agent who has to pass certain qualifying tests to be certified to offer securities investment advice to investors. He or she may (1) counsel what and when to buy, (2) counsel whether to hold or sell securities, (3) execute buy-sell orders on behalf of the investors, and (4) charge a percentage of the transaction amount as brokerage fee for the services rendered. Also called registered representative.

 

Tehran Bast – Iran Scaffolding – Iran Double Coupler

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Tehranbast.com

www.Iranmalleable.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ

 

 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 28

Inventory

1. An itemized catalog or list of tangible goods or property, or the intangible attributes or qualities.
2. The value of materials and goods held by an organization (1) to support production (raw materials, subassemblies, work in process), (2) for support activities (repair, maintenance, consumables), or (3) for sale or customer service (merchandise, finished goods, spare parts). Inventory is often the largest item in the current assets category, and must be accurately counted and valued at the end of each accounting period to determine a company’s profit or loss. Organizations whose inventory items have a large unit cost generally keep a day to day record of changes in inventory (called perpetual inventory method) to ensure accurate and on-going …

 

Tehran Bast – Iran Scaffolding – Iran Double Coupler

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Tehranbast.com

www.Iranmalleable.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 27

Dividend

A share of the after-tax profit of a company, distributed to its shareholders according to the number and class of shares held by them. Smaller companies typically distribute dividends at the end of an accounting year, whereas larger, publicly held companies usually distribute it every quarter. The amount and timing of the dividend is decided by the board of directors, who also determine whether it is paid out of current earnings or the past earnings kept as reserve. Holders of preferred stock receive dividend at a fixed rate and are paid first. Holders of ordinary shares are entitled to receive any amount of dividend, based on the level of profit and the company’s need for cash for expansion or other purposes.

Tehran Bast – Iran Scaffolding – Iran Double Coupler

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Tehranbast.com

www.Iranmalleable.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 26

Labor force

1. Number of workers in a firm.
2. Number of individuals in an economy who either are employed or are seeking employment.

Tehran Bast – Iran Scaffolding – Iran Double Coupler

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Tehranbast.com

www.Iranmalleable.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 

 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 25

 

Competence

 

1. A cluster of related abilities, commitments, knowledge, and skills that enable a person (or an organization) to act effectively in a job or situation. Competence indicates sufficiency of knowledge and skills that enable someone to act in a wide variety of situations. Because each level of responsibility has its own requirements, competence can occur in any period of a person’s life or at any stage of his or her career.
2. Law: The capacity of a person to understand a situation and to act reasonably. Disputes regarding the competence of an individual are settled by a judge and not by a professional (such as a doctor or a psychiatrist) although the judge may seek expert opinion before delivering at a judgment. Also called legal capacity.

 

 

Tehran Bast – Iran Scaffolding – Iran Double Coupler

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Tehranbast.com

www.Iranmalleable.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ

 

 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 24

 

Customer service

 

All interactions between a customer and a product provider at the time of sale, and thereafter. Customer service adds value to a product and builds enduring relationship.

Tehran Bast – Iran Scaffolding – Iran Double Coupler

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Tehranbast.com

www.Iranmalleable.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ

 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 23

Accessibility

 

1. Extent to which a consumer or user can obtain a good or service at the time it is needed. 2. Ease with which a facility or location can be reached from other locations. 3. Ease of contact with a person or organization. 4. Authorization, opportunity, or right to access records or retrieve information from an archive, computer system, or website.

Tehran Bast – Iran Scaffolding – Iran Double Coupler

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Tehranbast.com

www.Iranmalleable.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 22

Mutual fund

 

An investment vehicle managed by finance professionals that raises capital by selling shares (called units) in a chosen and balanced set of securities to the public.A mutual fund’s capital is invested in a group (portfolio) of corporate securities, commodities, options, etc., that match the fund’s objectives detailed in its prospectus. The level of a mutual fund’s income from its portfolio determines the daily market value (called net asset value) at which its units are redeemable on any business day, and the dividend paid to its unit holders. Mutual funds are of two main types: (1) open end fund (2) closed end fund .

Tehran Bast – Iran Scaffolding – Iran Double Coupler

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Tehranbast.com

www.Iranmalleable.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 
 
Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 21

 
Microeconomics

 

Study of the economic behavior of individual units of an economy (such as a person, household, firm, or industry) and not of the aggregate economy (which is the domain of macroeconomics). Microeconomics is primarily concerned with the factors that affect individual economic choices, the effect of changes in these factors on the individual decision makers, how their choices are coordinated by markets, and how prices and demand are determined in individual markets. The main subjects covered under microeconomics include theory of demand, theory of the firm, and demand for labor and other factors of production.

Tehran Bast – Iran Scaffolding – Iran Double Coupler 

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Tehranbast.com

www.Iranmalleable.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 

 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 20

Systematic sampling

 

A method of choosing a random sample from among a larger population. The process of systematic sampling typically involves first selecting a fixed starting point in the larger population and then obtaining subsequent observations by using a constant interval between samples taken. Hence, if the total population was 1,000, a random systematic sampling of 100 data points within that population would involve observing every 10th data point.

 

Tehran Bast

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Irancoupler.com

www.tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ

 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 19

 

Salary

Agreed-upon and regular compensation for employment that may be paid in any frequency but, in common practice, is paid on monthly and not on hourly, daily, weekly, or piece-work basis.

 

Tehran Bast

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Irancoupler.com

www.tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ

 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 18

Logistics

 

Planning, execution, and control of the procurement, movement, and stationing of personnel, material, and other resources to achieve the objectives of a campaign, plan, project, or strategy.

Tehran Bast

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Irancoupler.com

www.tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 17

 

Multinational Corporation (MNC)

 

An enterprise operating in several countries but managed from one (home) country. Generally, any company or group that derives a quarter of its revenue from operations outside of its home country is considered a multinational corporation. There are four categories of multinational corporations: (1) a multinational, decentralized corporation with strong home country presence, (2) a global, centralized corporation that acquires cost advantage through centralized production wherever cheaper resources are available, (3) an international company that builds on the parent corporation’s technology or R&D, or (4) a transnational enterprise that combines the previous three approaches.

 

Tehran Bast

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Irancoupler.com

www.tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ

 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 16

 

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

The value of a country’s overall output of goods and services (typically during one fiscal year) at market prices, excluding net income from abroad. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) can be estimated in three ways which, in theory, should yield identical figures. They are (1) Expenditure basis: how much money was spent, (2) Output basis: how many goods and services were sold, and (3) Income basis: how much income (profit) was earned. These estimates, published quarterly, are constantly revised to approach greater accuracy. The most closely watched data is the period to period change in output and consumption, in real (inflation adjusted) terms. If indirect taxes are deducted from the market prices and subsidies are added, it is called GDP

 

Tehran Bast

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Irancoupler.com

www.tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 
 
Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 15

 
Deductible

Fixed amount or percentage of an insurance claim that is the responsibility of the insured, and which the insurance company will deduct from the claim payment. Sometimes deductibles are voluntary (to qualify for a lower premium rate) but usually they are imposed by the insurer to avoid paying a large number of small claims. Also called excess. Not to be confused with tax deduction.

Tehran Bast

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Irancoupler.com

www.tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ

 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part  14

 

Standards

 

General: Written definition, limit, or rule, approved and monitored for compliance by an authoritative agency or professional or recognized body as a minimum acceptable benchmark. Standards may be classified as (1) government or statutory agency standards and specifications enforced by law, (2) proprietary standards developed by a firm or organization and placed in public domain to encourage their widespread use, and (3) voluntary standards established by consultation and consensus and available for use by any person, organization, or industry.

 

Tehran Bast

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Irancoupler.com

www.tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 13

Fair value

A price paid by a buyer who knows the value of what he or she is buying, to a seller who also knows the value of what is being sold, i.e., neither is cheating the other.

 

Tehran Bast

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Irancoupler.com

www.tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 
 
Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 12

Risk assessment

The identification, evaluation, and estimation of the levels of risks involved in a situation, their comparison against benchmarks or standards, and determination of an acceptable level of risk.

Tehran Bast

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Irancoupler.com

www.tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 11

 

Price

 

A value that will purchase a finite quantity, weight, or other measure of a good or service. As the consideration given in exchange for transfer of ownership, price forms the essential basis of commercial transactions. It may be fixed by a contract, left to be determined by an agreed upon formula at a future date, or discovered or negotiated during the course of dealings between the parties involved. In commerce, price is determined by what (1) a buyer is willing to pay, (2) a seller is willing to accept, and (3) the competition is allowing to be charged. With product, promotion, and place of marketing mix, it is one of the business variables over which organizations can exercise some degree of control.

 

Tehran Bast

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Irancoupler.com

www.tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 10

Consignee

 

A party (usually a buyer) named by the consignor (usually a seller) in transportation documents as the party to whose order a consignment will be delivered at the port of destination. The consignee is considered to be the owner of the consignment for the purpose of filing the customs declaration, and for paying duties and taxes. Formal ownership of the consignment, however, transfers to the consignee only upon payment of the seller’s invoice in full .

 

Tehran Bast

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.Irancoupler.com

www.tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 9

Spread

 

1. Commodities trading: Difference between the buying and selling price of the same commodity in (1) different delivery months in the same market (exchange) or (2) in different markets but in the same delivery months. Also called bid and asked spread. 2. Foreign exchange: (1) Difference between a long position in one currency and a short position in another, or (2) between different delivery dates of the same currency. 3. Investments: Diversity of an investment portfolio; greater the spread, lesser the chance of crippling losses or spectacular gains. 4. Securities trading: Difference between the (1) buyer’s price (bid) and the seller’s price (offer) which increases or decreases in step with the demand and supply of the security, (2) return (yield)

 

Tehran Bast

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 8

Conflict of interest

 

1. A situation that has the potential to undermine the impartiality of a person because of the possibility of a clash between the person’s self-interest and professional interest or public interest. 2. A situation in which a party’s responsibility to a second-party limits its ability to discharge its responsibility to a third-party.

Tehran Bast

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ

 

 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 7

 

Outsourcing

 

The contracting or subcontracting of noncore activities to free up cash,personnel, time, and facilities for activities in which a company holdscompetitive advantage. Companieshaving strengths in other areas maycontract out data processing, legal, manufacturing, marketing, payrollaccounting, or other aspects of their businesses to concentrate on what they do best and thus reduce average unit cost. Outsourcing is often an integral part of downsizing or reengineering. Also called contracting out.

Tehran Bast

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ

 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 6

Economic System

 

An organized way in which a state or nation allocates its resources and apportions goods and services in the national community .

 

Tehran Bast

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 

 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 5

Annuity

 

Series of payments at fixed intervals, guaranteed for a fixed number of years or the lifetime of one or more individuals. Similar to a pension, the money is paid out of an investment contract under which the annuitant(s) deposit certain sums (in a lump sum or in installments) with an annuity guarantor (usually a government agency or an insurance firm). The amount paid back includes principal and interest, either or both of which (depending on the local regulations) may be tax exempt. An annuity is not an insurance policy but a tax-shelter.

 

Tehran Bast

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 4

Production

 

The processes and methods used to transform tangible inputs (raw materials, semi-finished goods, subassemblies) and intangible inputs (ideas, information, knowledge) into goods or services. Resources are used in this process to create an output that is suitable for use or has exchange value.

 

Tehran Bast

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ

 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 3

Globalization

 

The worldwide movement toward economic, financial, trade, and communication integration. Globalization implies the opening of local and nationalistic perspectives to a broader outlook of an interconnected and interdependent world with free transfer of capital, goods, and services across national frontiers. However, it does not include unhindered movement of labor and, as suggested by some economists, may hurt smaller or fragile economies if applied indiscriminately.

 

Tehran Bast

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 2

Leader

 

A person or thing that holds a dominant or superior position within its field, and is able to exercise a high degree of control or influence over others.

 

Tehran Bast

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ


 

 

Business Dictionary

Daily Biz Dic

Part 1

 

Share

 

A unit of ownership that represents an equal proportion of a company’s capital. It entitles its holder (the shareholder) to an equal claim on the company’s profits and an equal obligation for the company’s debts and losses. Two major types of shares are (1) ordinary shares (common stock), which entitle the shareholder to share in the earnings of the company as and when they occur, and to vote at the company’s annual general meetings and other official meetings, and (2) preference shares(preferred stock) which entitle the shareholder to a fixed periodic income (interest) but generally do not give him or her voting rights

 

 

Tehran Bast

Manufacturer and exporter of quality scaffolding products

www.tehranbast.com

تولید لوازم داربست با ضمانت ، لوله داربستی ، بست چهار پیچ ، بست آهنگیر ، اتصال ، بست دو پیچ

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